Mullenary malformations


Uterine malformations are the result of abnormal development of the Müllerian ducts (those responsible for the formation of the female reproductive system) during a woman's prenatal development and can affect fertility.

Approximately 1% of women have uterine malformations, however, only 25% of these patients have reproductive problems.

Causes


Alterations that occur during the process of development and fusion of the Müllerian ducts give rise to uterine or Müllerian malformations.



Most of these malformations are congenital and in some cases are inherited. However, they can also be acquired as a result of foetal exposure to radiation, infections or drugs such as diethylstilbestrol and thalidomide.

Symptoms

Chronic pelvic pain
Pain during sexual intercourse
Dysmenorrhoea (painful menstrual periods)
Amenorrhoea (absence of menstruation)
Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual periods)
abdominal swelling, especially during menstruation
Endometriosis
Infertility
Recurrent gestational loss
Premature birth
Complications during childbirth
Low birth weight

Diagnosis

The most reliable test for the diagnosis of uterine malformations is the Gynecological vaginal ultrasound, during which the doctor inserts a probe into the woman's vagina in order to examine her reproductive organs.
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