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Infertility, a situation that can be solved

Infertility could be an obstacle, but never an impediment.

There are more than 180 million women around the world who want to have a baby without achieving it, because they face an infertility problem caused by some specific factors. Something that nowadays can be solved. Over here we’ll give you the answers you need to know all about it.

1. I had tubal ligation, but now I want to be a mom again

Can you help me have a baby after I had tubal ligation?

Absolutely. Tubal ligation is not an obstacle to get pregnant, as there are treatments and alternatives available. The best thing to do is to have a reproductive specialist evaluate your reproductive health and ovarian reserve to define the best treatment option for your case. At Ingenes, we have specialized physicians on hand who can make this diagnosis

How long does it take to get pregnant after reversing tubal ligation?

There is no exact timeframe to achieve pregnancy following tubal ligation reversal. However, you can expect to wait an average of 1-3 months following recovery, depending on the type of surgery (cesarean type or through the navel).

Is tubal ligation reversal safe?

Tubal ligation reversal carries the same risk as undergoing any surgery. It’s also important to recognize that the reversal cannot be guaranteed, as it depends on multiple factors: the type of tubal ligation, the time between surgery and reversal, the surgeon's experience, etc.

What are my options for getting pregnant if I have tubal ligation?

There are two alternatives to achieve pregnancy when you have tubal ligation; the first is tubal recanalization and the second is in vitro fertilization. We recommend visiting a reproductive specialist to determine which is your best option.

Why I should fall back on IVF instead of a tubal ligation reversal?

In Vitro Fertilization is the safest and most effective way to achieve pregnancy with tubal ligation. The process takes 1 month and is 65% effective on the first attempt.

What are the success rates of getting pregnant after tubal ligation reversal?

The pregnancy success rate from a single IVF procedure is 65% on the first attempt, 75% on the second attempt, 85% on the third attempt and 96% on the fourth attempt.

What are the success rates of getting pregnant after tubal ligation reversal?

It varies depending on the case. However, the average success rate ranges from 20% to 30%.

Is it risky to recanalize the tubes?

It carries the same risk as any other surgery. But if pregnancy is achieved, there is an added risk for the fertilized egg lodging outside the uterus (ectopic pregnancy).

2. I want to keep my fertility and freeze my eggs until the perfect moment

Can you freeze my eggs at Ingenes for future use?

Of course! Through our Star at Home Preservation program, we will freeze your eggs so you can become a mother on your own terms.

What is the benefit of freezing my eggs?

Freezing will preserve the quality of your eggs to easily achieve a pregnancy with a healthy baby if you want to postpone motherhood after the age of 35, or if you will be undergoing a treatment that may damage your eggs.

How can I freeze my eggs?

With a simple treatment that lasts 12 days, which consists of applying medications injected at the beginning of the menstrual period for approximately 10 days; then, through an ultrasound it is determined if the eggs are mature enough to perform a transvaginal ultrasound aspiration under sedation, this procedure lasts 15 to 20 minutes and is non-invasive.

What is the best age to freeze my eggs?

It is recommended to freeze your eggs before the age of 35.

How long can my eggs be frozen?

Once frozen, your eggs can be stored indefinitely. For as long as you wish.

Is it a good idea to freeze my eggs?

Yes, freezing provides the best option to preserve your eggs in the event of a situation that may affect your potential to achieve a healthy pregnancy in the future.

Do cryopreservation, vitrification and freezing all mean the same thing?

Yes, the terms can be used interchangeably.

At what age can I freeze my eggs?

There is no age limit. but it is recommended to do so before you turn 35 years to optimize the quality of your eggs.

Is the egg retrieval process painful?

No. The egg retrieval is performed under sedation, so you will feel nothing at the time of retrieval, and the procedure lasts between 15 and 20 minutes.

How is the egg retrieval for freezing performed?

The extraction is performed vaginally under sedation by means of a vaginal ultrasound. A needle is then used to aspirate the eggs.

How long can my eggs be frozen?

Once frozen, your eggs can be stored indefinitely. For as long as you wish.

What happens to the eggs that are not fertilized?

In a fertility preservation process, all of the eggs are frozen.

Are there any risks or contraindications involved in freezing my eggs?

The process of freezing your eggs is generally considered very safe. However, it is always important to seek expert advice. In terms of complications, the risk is minimal.

3. I want to choose my baby’s gender

What can I do to choose the sex of my baby?

At Ingenes, we’ve developed Eligender, a method to diagnose the sex of embryos that have reached day five, allowing you to choose which ones will be transferred.

Is it possible to choose the sex of the baby?

Yes. Eligender is our patented method for diagnosing the sex of embryos that have reached day five, allowing you to choose which ones will be transferred.

How can I increase my chances of having a girl?

There is no method to favor the probability of having a baby of one sex over the other that is effective, efficient and safe. At Ingenes, we have developed Eligender to determine the sex of the embryos, with over 98% effectiveness, granting you the possibility of selecting which ones will then be transferred.

Which is easier to have, a boy or a girl?

There is no evidence that either sex is easier to conceive.

Is the Shettles method effective for choosing the sex of the baby?

No. There is not yet an effective, efficient and safe method that favors the probability of one sex over the other.

What is Eligender?

Eligender is a Ingenes' patented method for analyzing the sex chromosomes of your embryos to determine how many of each sex are present in your cycle. This method requires In Vitro Fertilization to access the embryos outside your body.

How do I choose the sex of my baby with Ingenes?

With Eligender, we identify how many girl embryos and how many boy embryos are present in your cycle, offering you the possibility to choose the sex of the embryos you want to be transferred.

What is the accuracy rate of Eligender?

Eligender provides an accuracy rate greater than 98%.

Is Eligender included in Your Star at Home programs?

No, it is an additional service that we offer at Ingenes.

4. I want to do a Genetic Diagnosis

What is PGT and what is it for?

PGT stands for Preimplantation Genetic Testing; it’s a technic used to identify chromosomal abnormalities in embryos in order to select a normal embryo (euploid) that can be safely transferred.

What diseases are identified by PGT?

PGT identifies all syndromes that arise from a gain (trisomy) or loss (monosomy) of chromosomes, those associated to a mutation present on a single gen or location and those caused by a chromosomal rearrangement.

What is PGT-M?

The Preimplantation Genetic Testing for Mendelian disorders is a technique that complements assisted reproduction treatments. It allows us to select embryos that do not present specific chromosomal or genetic alterations associated with a mutation, deletion (loss of genetic material), insertion, translocation or inversion in the genome of the embryo before its implantation in the uterus. Such as cystic fibrosis, emophilia or muscular dystrophy.

What is PGT-A?

The Preimplantation Genetic Testing for Aneuploidy is used to detect the existence of an abnormal number of chromosomes expected in an embryo, which could cause recurrent pregnancy loss or embryo implantation failure or syndromes associated to a gain or loss of chromosomes. Such as down syndrome, Pataw syndrome or Edward’s Syndrome

Is the PGT included in Your Star At Home Programs?

No, it is a complementary service that we offer at Ingenes, for your assisted reproduction treatment or Your Star at Home program.

Is the PGT included in BEC Programs?

No, it is a complementary service that we offer at Ingenes, for your assited reproduction treatment or BEC Program.

How much does the PGT process cost at Ingenes?

In the United States, a PGT-A can cost between 1,800 and 7,500 USD. At Ingenes, a PGT-A ranges from 4,000 to 6,300 USD, depending on the number of cycles you wish to purchase (1 to 4). In addition, the PGT-A allows you to evaluate up to 6 embryos per cycle.

The PGT-M allows you to evaluate 1 to 3 embryos, or 4 to 6 embryos. The cost ranges from 6,350 USD to 10,350 USD. This does not depend on the cycle but on how many embryos are studied.

What is the process to perform a PGT + IVF?

In order to perform a PGT, an IVF procedure must take place. During day 5 of development embryo biopsy is performed where 1-15 cells are obtained for genetic analysis. The genetic material is then amplified to analyze the embryo’s complete genome in order to detect abnormalities in chromosomal numbers by using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology.

What is the percentage of effectiveness of a PGT?

The chromosomal analysis is 98% effective in detecting euploid (chromosomally normal) embryos.

5. I’m single and I want to be a mom

I’m single and I want to be a mom; what fertility treatments are available?

If you want to become a mother, you have the options of intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization, both of which can be performed through a sperm bank.

What is the cost of a fertility treatment to become a single mother in USA?

In general, an assisted reproduction treatment in the United States ranges from 500 - 4,000 USD for artificial insemination, while a 3-cycle In Vitro Fertilization can cost upwards of 30,000 USD.

At Ingenes, the cost varies, but generally starts around 1,200 USD for artificial insemination procedure, and up to 15,999 USD for a 3-cycle Your Star At Home Program, which includes the use of the Ingenes Mexico Sperm Bank.

What is the cost of a fertility treatment to become a single mother in Mexico?

Costs may vary, starting at $12,000 MXN for IUI including sperm bank use, up to $60,000 MXN for an IVF treatment of one cicle, including sperm bank use.

What is my best option to become a single mother: fertilization or insemination?

To answer this question, your case should be reviewed by a specialist, who will evaluate your reproductive health and ovarian reserve before discussing your best options.

Do you have a sperm bank?

We don't have a sperm bank in USA, but our high complexity programs Your Star At Home include the use of the Sperm Bank at Ingenes Mexico.

Can I choose a foreign donor to have a baby?

If you get one of Your Star at Home Program of High Complexity, you will have access to our sperm bank at Ingenes Mexico, you can also have access to an international sperm bank use with aditional cost.

How much does it cost to buy sperm in the USA?

Costs vary, as the prices are set by the individual sperm banks and fertility centers. In general, you can expect to pay around 200 USD. Our comprehensive "Your Star at Home" programs include access to our Ingenes Mexico national sperm bank if you decide to purchase one of our high complexity programs.

How do I go about choosing a sperm donor?

There are 2 types of sperm donations:
- Identified: Someone you know who is willing to make the donation.
- Anonymous donation: The selection is made from the sperm bank based on the physical characteristics you requested to ensure the donor matches your specifications as closely as possible.

6. I can’t get pregnant and I haven’t taken any treatment

How is artificial insemination performed?

In artificial insemination, 2 to 3 eggs are matured with the use of medication. When they are ready, the capacitated sperm sample (from the partner or donor) is placed inside the uterus to increase the possibility of pregnancy.

When is artificial insemination used?

Artificial insemination is recommended when previous programmed intercourse treatments have failed, when there is a diagnosis of mild endometriosis or if a mild male factor is detected. Ideally, artificial insemination is performed when the woman is under 35 years old and both fallopian tubes are permeable.

How much does an artificial insemination cost in USA?

In general, an assisted reproduction treatment in the United States ranges from 500 - 4,000 USD for artificial insemination, while a 3-cycle In Vitro Fertilization can cost upwards of 30,000 USD. At Ingenes our treatments begin at $1,200 USD for IUI

How many children can you have at a time through insemination?

With artificial insemination, ideally only one baby is achieved. However, due to the ovarian stimulation of the treatment, it is possible to mature more than one egg, which can result in a multiple pregnancy. The chance of a twin pregnancy through artificial insemination is approximately 3% to 17%.

What are the risks of artificial insemination?

It is a very low-risk treatment. However, ovarian stimulation can result in a multiple pregnancy and/or Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome, which occurs when the ovary responds in an exaggerated manner to the hormonal medication. Other risks that may occur are pelvic or vaginal infections and allergic reactions.

What is the success rate of artificial insemination?

In general, the procedure has a success rate between 15% and 20%, but it varies depending on the circumstances of each patient.

What causes artificial insemination to fail?

The factors that may decrease the possibility of success in artificial insemination are: sperm quality, the patient's age, the condition of the fallopian tubes, or the condition of the uterus.

How should I prepare for artificial insemination?

Choose a time when you’re feeling emotionally stable, you’re eating a balanced diet, and you have the time available to attend your medical check-ups and follow your doctor's instructions.

How long does an artificial insemination treatment last?

From the ovarian stimulation until the semen is placed in the uterus, it lasts approximately 12 to15 days. Note that a pregnancy test is requested 15 days after the procedure is performed.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of artificial insemination?

Artificial insemination is a simple and minimally invasive technique that can be performed in the office without the need for an operating room. It is painless, does not require anesthesia, and is generally inexpensive.

What are the causes of not being able to get pregnant?

The causes of infertility are 40% due to male factors (for example, low sperm quality) and 40% due to female factors (such as ovulation problems, fallopian tube disorders, uterine conditions, among others).

What can I do to get pregnant?

First, schedule a medical check-up to verify whether all of the necessary aspects to achieve pregnancy are in optimal condition. Your fertility specialist can then discuss your various options.

What happens if I ovulate without getting pregnant?

If you ovulate every month and you haven’t gotten pregnant, we recommend scheduling a medical evaluation with a specialist, as there’s a wide variety of circumstances that may be interfering (for example, ovular quality, fallopian tube issues, low sperm quality, or poor conditions in the uterus).

What home remedies can I use to get pregnant?

Home remedies are not effective for achieving pregnancy. It is best to seek the support of a specialist, who will give you an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Why haven’t I gotten pregnant if I’m not using contraceptives?

If you are under 35 years old, you’re having sex without contraceptives 2 to 3 times a week, and you haven’t gotten pregnant after a year, it is considered a case of infertility. But don't worry! You can schedule an appointment with a specialist, who will diagnose you and identify your best treatment plan to achieve pregnancy.

When are a woman's most fertile days after her period?

If you have precise 28-day cycles, your most fertile day is day 14, with day one considered the first day of your period. For the best chance of pregnancy, it is recommended to have intercourse on days 12, 14 and 16.

How do I know if I can get pregnant?

Your best course of action is to schedule a diagnostic consultation, during which you and your partner will be evaluated to determine your chances of becoming pregnant.

How do I know if I have problems getting pregnant?

If you are under 35 years old, you’re having sex without contraceptives 2 to 3 times a week, and you haven’t gotten pregnant after a year, it is considered a case of infertility. If you are a woman over 35, the period to consider is 6 months.

What medication can I take to get pregnant?

There are different medications that support ovulation, but they depend entirely on your individual barriers to pregnancy. You’ll need to first attend a medical evaluation with your partner to determine the best treatment course for you to achieve pregnancy.

What is assisted reproduction and what does it consist of?

Assisted reproduction is a set of techniques that facilitate or replace the natural processes that occur during reproduction. Treatments include artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, and egg preservation. At Ingenes, we have used assisted reproduction to help thousands of couples achieve parenthood who would have been otherwise unable to do so.

What are the different types of assisted reproduction?

Assisted reproduction can be divided into two major groups: High and Low complexity.

What treatments does an assisted reproduction clinic offer?

In general, assisted reproduction clinics provide all the necessary treatments for you to successfully have your baby. These range from the simplest, such as programmed intercourse and artificial insemination, to the most advanced, such as in vitro fertilization.

When is assisted reproduction necessary?

Assisted reproduction is recommended after 12 months or more of unprotected intercourse without achieving a clinical pregnancy.

What is in vitro fertilization and its success rates?

In Vitro Fertilization is one of the most effective techniques to improve the possibility of pregnancy.
It consists of fertilizing an egg with a sperm outside the uterus and the success rate varies between 65% and 96%, depending on the number of cycles.

How long can a fertility treatment last?

It depends on the treatment, although on average, the duration of treatment is approximately a month and a half, from the start of the treatment to the pregnancy test.

How much does in vitro fertilization cost in Mexico?

There are many facilities that perform In Vitro Fertilization and the costs of the treatment are highly variable, but the most important element is the result.

When deciding where to undergo your treatment, we recommend checking the facility’s success rates and verifying the quality of their laboratory, as these are the most important factors in achieving your goal.

How many days does an In Vitro Fertilization stimulation last?

Controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF lasts between 10 and 12 days.

What is the IVF process like?

1. The IVF process begins with a medical evaluation to ensure all of the necessary medical requirements are met.

2. Following, you will undergo ovarian stimulation, which involves the injection of medications, with revisions every three days to assess your treatment progress. The objective is to achieve a positive ovarian response.


3. Next, ovarian puncture is performed to extract your eggs, ideally obtaining 10 to 15 eggs.


4. Now it’s time for In Vitro Fertilization, which unites the sperm with the egg.


5. The embryos are then cultured, with close observation of their development.


6. Following successful development, the embryos are transferred to your uterus.


7. Fifteen days later, you will receive a blood test to determine whether pregnancy was achieved.

What tests are done before IVF?

Before commencing IVF, we need to perform a vaginal ultrasound to determine your ovarian reserve and the condition of your uterus. Another important study is the semen analysis to assess the sperm quality. Finally, a transfer test is recommended to indicate the path the embryos will follow after being implanted.

What is the success rate of IVF?

In general, a single IVF treatment can achieve a success rate of 40% to 65% on the first attempt, although success depends on the patient's unique case. That is why we treat each patient with individual care.

How is an IVF performed?

1. The IVF process begins with a medical evaluation to ensure all of the necessary medical requirements are met.
2. Following, you will undergo ovarian stimulation, which involves the injection of medications, with revisions every three days to assess your treatment progress. The objective is to achieve a positive ovarian response.
3. Next, ovarian puncture is performed to extract your eggs, ideally obtaining 10 to 15 eggs.
4. Now it’s time for In Vitro Fertilization, which unites the sperm with the egg.
5. The embryos are then cultured, with close observation of their development.
6. Following successful development, the embryos are transferred to your uterus.
7. Fifteen days later, you will receive a blood test to determine whether pregnancy was achieved.

How is the embryo transfer test performed?

The test is quick and painless. First, the patient is placed on the examination table in the gynecological position. Next, a vaginal mirror is used to view the cervix, through which we pass a thin, flexible cannula, which allows us to determine the characteristics of the cervix, including length and direction.

How long does the embryo transfer take?

To perform the embryo transfer, the patient must first meet several requirements, including having a full bladder. Following, the embryo transfer procedure takes approximately 10 minutes.

What is the process to transfer frozen embryos?

For a frozen embryo transfer, we first perform a vaginal ultrasound on day 2 or 3 of your period to verify that the conditions are suitable for treatment. If everything is in order, you will begin a course of medication for approximately 10 days, followed by another checkup to verify that your endometrium is in optimal condition to receive the embryos. Finally, your frozen embryo transfer will be scheduled approximately 5 days later.

What are the possible reasons the embryo didn’t implant?

The causes of a failed implantation may be related to the embryo, the uterus or other diseases. Embryonic causes are mainly due to genetic alterations in the embryo or in the gametes coming from the parents (i.e., the egg or the sperm). On the other hand, uterine causes may be due to chronic asymptomatic infections of the endometrium or alterations such as polyps, septa, myomas, adhesions, or anomalies in the window of implantation. Other causes may be thrombophilia, immune system disorders, or endocrinopathies.

When are the embryos implanted after transfer?

Embryo transfer is performed on their third or fifth day, according to certain embryo quality criteria. Between day 5 and 7, the blastocyst increases in volume until it breaks through the outer layer, known as the zona pellucida. This phenomenon is known as hatching. The blastocyst cells then penetrate the endometrium, which is known as implantation. In most cases, the embryo will implant between 5 and 6 days after transfer, although some embryos can implant as late as day 7.

7. I can’t get pregnant and I’ve already taken treatment

Are all the oocytes obtained in each donation assigned to only one woman?

At Ingenes, we strive to provide the best possible result for the recipient and minimize discomfort and complications for the donor. To that end, the quality and quantity of oocytes obtained will determine whether they are assigned to more than one recipient.

Are donors tested for their intellectual capacity, or what tests do they have?

At Ingenes Mexico, we do not request or perform IQ tests. Most of our donor candidates are university students, however, our donors comprise women with varying levels of education and fields of study.

How long does it take to assign a donor?

The time required to assign a donor depends largely on their physical similarity to the general population. We assign donors based on the likeness of their physical characteristics to the recipient. So it stands to reason that the more unique the donor is in appearance, the longer the process may take.

How do you choose my donor to ensure that he/she meets the characteristics I requested?

We have strict protocols to guarantee the accurate identification of donation samples based on the physical characteristics of the donor. We respect your requests by matching you with donor characteristics as similar to your own as possible.

Can I have access to more detailed information about the donor?

One of the most important conditions involved in our donation process is the care we take to safeguard the anonymity of both recipient and donor. For this reason, we only grant the recipient access to the assigned donor’s profile of characteristics and interests in exceptional cases. However, we never release sensitive data such as name, telephone number or address.

What happens if my IVF fails?

Try not to feel too discouraged by a failed IVF cycle, as it provides us with valuable information about how your body responds to the treatment. To that end, at Ingenes, we have adopted two strategies to continuously improve our pregnancy rates:

• In a meeting between doctors and IVF laboratory biologists, we evaluate each step to decide how to address the problems that we encounter.

• Using our internally developed IMED system, we evaluate the possible cause of the failed treatment and make corresponding improvements to achieve success in the next attempt.

8. I’m already pregnant! What should I know?

How many appointments should a pregnant woman have?

The World's Health Organization (WHO) suggests a minimum of 8 prenatal control appointments, but this number will vary according to each patient’s clinical history, ultrasound findings, etc.

How is the care for pregnant women at your facility?

At Ingenes, every person who walks through our doors is treated with warmth and respect. Our patients are taken care of through all the time that endures treatment, pregnancy, delivery and puerperium.

What should I expect from my first visit to the gynecologist after getting pregnant?

Your first visit to Maternal Fetal will be centered around getting to know you. First, your doctor will take comprehensive records to determine your medical history, family medical history, surgical history, allergies, etc. After that, you will undergo a general clinical checkup (weight, height, vital signs), along with basic tests to determine your overall health during pregnancy. Finally, depending on the weeks of gestation, you may undergo a level 2 ultrasound assessment, which is a specialized procedure to determine the health of your fetus.

What tests will be performed during my pregnancy?

Each trimester of your pregnancy, you’ll receive the following tests to determine your overall health: blood biometry, complete blood biochemistry, coagulation times, general urine test, thyroid profile, cervicovaginal swab and urine culture. You can also expect to undergo gestational diabetes screening and most importantly, at least 3 ultrasounds: chromosomal ultrasound (11-14 weeks), structural ultrasound (18-20 weeks), and morphologic ultrasound of the heart and central nervous system (24-28 weeks).

When are the first tests performed during pregnancy?

The first tests should be performed before week 14th, including blood tests (blood biometry, blood chemistry), a general urine test, serum marker and a chromosomal ultrasound.

What lifestyle changes should I made during pregnancy?

At Ingenes, low complexity programs cost around $1.200,00 USD. Artificial Insemination not include a sperm bank access, it does include sperm preparation in the laboratory, any necessary revisions during the treatment, a pregnancy test and the first ultrasound.

The cost of medications to stimulate the ovaries are not included.

How long do I have to fast before a pregnancy blood tests?

You’ll need to fast for at least 8 hours before a blood test to determine pregnancy.

How does a blood test determine whether I’m pregnant?

To confirm pregnancy, a blood test detects the hormone hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), which is released by the embryo only after implantation — which is why it is known as the pregnancy hormone.

How are the weeks calculated in pregnancy?

Normal pregnancy lasts 280 days (40 weeks), starting from the first day of the last menstrual period. The calculation of the weeks is based on the date of the last menstrual period and the 10 lunar months. This allows three trimesters to be established, ranging from 0 to 14 weeks, from 14-28 weeks and from 28 weeks to term. However, measuring the cranio cauda length (CRL) of the fetus is the most accurate way to determine the gestational age.

What should I do after a threatened miscarriage?

Every cause of threatened miscarriage is different, so it’s critical to follow your doctor's instructions.

How do I know if my baby is doing well in the first trimester?

During your first trimester of pregnancy, your maternal-fetal specialist will look for your baby’s ultrasound markers, as well as your serum markers to establish whether the fetus is developing properly and if there is any risk of disease. During these months, there is a heightened risk of preeclampsia. You should also undergo a chromosomal screening and ultrasound during this trimester.

How long does bleeding last after a threatened miscarriage?

This depends on the cause that triggered the threatened miscarriage. If it was due to a urinary tract infection, it can last 7 to 10 days; if it was due to retrochorial hematomas, 10 to 15 days; and low-lying placenta or placenta previa can cause bleeding of varying durations. Ask your doctor about your specific case.

What does out of normal range mean?

When your results display an indicator that’s "out of normal range", it means that it is outside of the normally established limits and you need to consult with your doctor.

How many days after intercourse does implantation occur?

It depends on your individual menstrual cycle, so it’s best to consult your assisted reproduction doctor.

What the most accurate way to know if I am pregnant?

A blood test is more sensitive than a urine test, because it needs to be lees hCG present to get a positive result.

How do I get my cervix to open?

The cervix begins to open when the mucus plug that once covered the uterus to protect the fetus is expelled. The time it takes for this process varies for each mother; it can take from hours to days. For labor to develop normally, both mother and baby undergo physical changes to allow the baby's head to pass through the cervical os. It needs to reach 10 centimeters before giving birth. The mother must have rhythmic contractions (labor) and the baby must be in the right position for labor to occur. This usually happens spontaneously around 37 weeks of pregnancy.

9. Shared motherhood: Women couples

What is the ROPA method?

ROPA stands for Reception of Oocytes from the Partner, and it is the method used when two women want to share in the journey to motherhood. One partner undergoes the process of ovarian stimulation to obtain her eggs and unite them with sperm from either a sperm bank or a known donor, at their discretion. And the other partner will receive the pre-formed embryos in her uterus to carry the pregnancy.

Can two women have children?

Absolutely! Medical evaluations of both women will be required to determine the most appropriate treatment course.

How much does the ROPA method cost?

At Ingenes, our In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) programs include access to our national sperm bank in Mexico, from 1 to 4 attempts. Also included in your BEC program are any necessary revisions during treatment, cell union in the IVF laboratory, incubators for the embryos, embryo transfer, a pregnancy test per cycle, and the first ultrasound. The costs for ovarian stimulation and endometrial preparation are not included.

How much does Artificial Insemination cost?

At Ingenes, low complexity programs cost around $1.200,00 USD. Although it does not include a sperm bank acAt Ingenes, low complexity programs cost around $1.200,00 USD. Artificial Insemination not include a sperm bank access, it does include sperm preparation in the laboratory, any necessary revisions during the treatment, a pregnancy test and the first ultrasound.
The cost of medications to stimulate the ovaries are not included.
cess, it does include sperm preparation in the laboratory, any necessary revisions during the treatment, a pregnancy test and the first ultrasound. 

The cost of medications to stimulate the ovaries are not included.

What is ovarian stimulation?

Ovarian stimulation consists of placing medications called gonadotropins subcutaneously to promote the growth and maturation of eggs for either artificial insemination or In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).

What is the process of Artificial Insemination?

First we stimulate the ovaries to generate the growth of 2 to 5 eggs. A medication is then injected to enable the release of these eggs into the tubes; finally, previously capacitated sperm are placed inside the uterus, which then meet with the awaiting eggs.

What is a gestational mother?

The gestational mother is the woman who carries the pregnancy.

How long does in vitro fertilization take?

The In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) process takes an average of 1 month, from the time the medications are placed, the egg retrieval is performed, and the embryo is implanted in your uterus.

When does ovarian stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization begin?

Ovarian stimulation for IVF is performed on the second or third day of your menstrual bleeding.

What is the success rate of in vitro fertilization?

The success rate varies according to each couple and their specific case, but it generally varies between 60% and 70% for a single cycle. Ask your doctor for more personalized information.

What is the sperm donation process?

The sperm donation process can be done in two ways: from a sperm bank, in which the donor is anonymous, or directly by a known donor. In either case, they can be used in a high or low complexity treatments, either through IVF or Artificial Insemination.

How do you choose a sperm donor?

All sperm samples available from the Ingenes Sperm bank undergo the following tests: karyotype, serology to rule out Hepatitis B and C, HIV, and syphilis, and psychological testing to rule out mental health disorders. Only after passing all of these tests can the candidate become an approved donor, so the samples are safe and high-quality. For this reason, and depending on the requirements of each patient, certain physical characteristics can be chosen.

Are we both mothers of the baby?

Yes, since one is the genetic mother who provides the egg, and the other is the biological mother who carries the pregnancy.

Who is a gestational mother?

Gestational mother is the woman who carries the pregnancy.

10. I want to be an egg donor

If I donate too many times, will it potentially cause infertility issues in the future?

According to the American Association for Assisted Reproduction, there are no proven long-term risks associated with performing different stimulations, meaning, there is no proven relationship between egg donation and infertility, early menopause or cancer. However, performing a maximum of 6 donations is recommended to avoid the risk of consanguinity among the children resulting from the various donations.

Are all the ovocytes obtained in each donation assigned to only one woman?

At Ingenes, we strive to provide the best possible result for the recipient and minimize discomfort and complications for the donor. In order to the eggs’ quality and quantity obtained will determine whether they are assigned to more than one recipient.

How do you choose which recipient to match with each donor?

First, our donation recipients fill out a physical characteristics form, which includes skin color, eye color, hair color, hair type, complexion, likes and abilities. Based on the results, we identify one or more donors with similar characteristics, and a team of genetic experts decides which recipient to match with each donor in order to achieve the desired compatibility.

How are donors selected?

If you wish to become a donor, you must first meet a set of requirements to be eligible:
• Be of legal age 

• Be in good physical and mental health
• Disclose your family and personal medical history 

• Not use drugs or tobacco 

• Not have received any piercings or tattoos within the last six months



In addition, you will undergo a personality evaluation to rule out the risk of psychiatric disorders, as well as chromosomal and blood analyses to rule out diseases such as HIV, VDRL, and Hepatitis B and C. All of the tests are performed within the Institute. Once concluded without any issues, you will be added to our donation program to provide the valuable contribution of helping women achieve their dreams of motherhood.

How many times can you donate eggs?

The American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) establishes a maximum of six cycles per donor in order to avoid the risk of consanguinity, that is, marriage between children of different patients with a common donor.

How many eggs are produced in a month?

Women do not produce eggs every month. When you are born, you have a defined ovarian reserve, that is, a defined number of eggs. But each month you can visualize between 6 to 12 follicles (eggs) per ovary in women from 18 to 35 years old.

What do you have to do to donate eggs?

All women who wish to be egg donors need to undergo various physical and psychological testing to assess their eligibility. After being accepted, they will have to undergo an ovarian stimulation treatment, which will be explained in detail during consultation.

What are the risks involved in egg donation?

Some of the risks involved in donating eggs include ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, multiple pregnancy, or risk of infection. For the possible offspring, there is a risk of consanguinity, depending on the number of live newborns.

How long does a menstrual cycle last after egg donation?

Only the menstrual period directly following the ovarian puncture may be protracted; the rest of the periods will continue with the same regularity as before the donation.

11. I want to be a semen donor

What is the solution for low sperm count?

The best course of action is to see a fertility specialist, who will investigate the possible causes of low sperm count and determine the best solution. If the sperm count does not improve, the specialist will then suggest the most effective path to become a father.

What is the solution for low ejaculation?

When the volume of ejaculation is low, there is a lower probability of achieving a spontaneous pregnancy. To learn the cause and possible solutions, we recommend paying a visit to a fertility specialist.

How do you increase sperm count?

We recommend eating a balanced diet, performing regular aerobic exercise and reducing tobacco consumption. If the sperm count does not improve, it’s best to see a fertility specialist, who will determine the cause and decide the best treatment to become a father.

How do you determine whether the sperm count is low?

By performing a seminogram, a test that evaluates the semen in 45 to 60 minutes. A result of less than 15 million per milliliter is considered a low sperm count.

12. Male infertility: What you should know

How do you know if a man is sterile using a home test?

There is no way to establish sterility with a home test. The best option is to consult a specialist, who will determine the cause through a semen analysis. It’s worth mentioning that nowadays, the term "sterile" is no longer used, as there is a solution to almost any type of reproductive problem.

How do you know if a man has reproductive issues?

It is determined through a seminogram, a test that evaluates the semen. The test lasts between 45 and 60 minutes.

What is ICSI?

It stands for Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection, a relatively new procedure, a variation of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) consisting of the injection of a single sperm directly into the mature egg. The sperm is chosen via expert observation and placed into the egg using a specialized microscopic needle.
This technique allows couples with severe cases of male infertility to use IVF successfully without the need for donor sperm.

Which is safer, IVF or ICSI/PICSI?

In reality, all techniques for uniting the sperm with the egg are safe. The advantage that one treatment may have over another depends on the patient's individual case.

How is the sperm injected?

Using a special microscope that keeps all the elements at body temperature, we hold the egg with micromanipulators and introduce the sperm using a microneedle.

What happens when the sperm does not reach the egg?

If the sperm does not reach the egg, no embryo is created, meaning pregnancy is not achieved.

How long does it take for the sperm to reach the egg for fertilization?

The time can vary between 30 minutes and 72 hours, which is the maximum time that the sperm can live inside the female reproductive system.

What is a sperm culture?

It is a study to evaluate the presence of harmful bacteria in the semen, as many of them do not present symptoms.

How is the spermatobioscopy study performed?

Through masturbation, a semen sample is obtained and deposited in a sterile container. It is important to collect all of the semen in order to perform the test correctly, and ideally the man should not have ejaculated between three and five days before the test. Once the sample is obtained, a biologist will evaluate the semen’s macroscopic and microscopic characteristics.

How do you read the results of a spermogram?

A spermogram analyzes the volume of the sample, the pH, concentration, motility and shape of the sperm, and the presence of leukocytes, which could indicate an infection.
All these parameters are compared against the reference values provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the 2010 committee: concentration greater than 15 million/ml, motility greater than 40%, normal forms greater than 4%.

How should the spermogram results appear after a vasectomy?

Following a vasectomy, the semen analysis should indicate the absence of sperm, or azoospermia. To achieve this result, it is necessary to wait at least 3 months after the surgery, or spermatozoa may still appear in the sample.
In the case of a pathology result of the tissue sample removed during the vasectomy, the result should indicate the presence of vas deferens.

Which diseases can be detected in the sperm culture?

A generic sperm culture will only detect bacteria such as E. coli. A special culture will detect the presence of mycoplasma, ureaplasma and chlamydia, which all have fertility repercussions.

How long does a sperm culture take?

Between 7 and 10 days, although it is kept under observation in the laboratory longer than that because certain bacteria take more time to develop.

What happens if an abnormal sperm fertilizes an egg?

An abnormal sperm has a lower probability of entering the egg, forming an embryo and implantation, but it has not been demonstrated to increase the probability of birth defects or malformations.
When abnormal sperm are present, it is best to use a technique called ICSI, in which an expert biologist looks for normal sperm and injects them into the couple's eggs to promote fertility.

How effective is ICSI?

ICSI has an effectiveness comparable to IVF, ranging from a 60 to 96% chance of pregnancy, depending on the cycles performed.

Does ICSI incur an additional cost to my BEC Program?

No. ICSI is a technique that is included in our BEC programs, as it helps to increase the probability of success in certain cases.

Does ICSI incur an additional cost to my Your Star at Home Program?

No. ICSI is a technique that is included in our Your Star at Home programs, as it helps to increase the probability of success in certain cases.

What are the risks involved in receiving donated sperm?

The risks directly related to receiving sperm are minimal. At Ingenes, we implement safety protocols to ensure the highest quality in our donor samples, such as: complete family history evaluation, studies to detect sexually transmitted diseases, and karyotyping to guarantee complete chromosomes.

How do you choose the sperm donor?

The selection and evaluation of donors is carried out according to the parameters established by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) and the World Health Organization, in addition to those established by the relevant Mexican authorities. Likewise, the handling of the samples is closely supervised by the National Transplant Center (CENATRA) and only a small percentage of men who apply to be donors are accepted into our program. Potential sperm donors undergo extensive medical and psychological testing, as well as a detailed survey of their background, lifestyle and family medical history. In addition, the semen sample is checked for proper freezing and thawing and undergoes chromosome analysis to verify that the donor's karyotype is normal. Following the recommendations of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), with the knowledge that the AIDS virus can remain latent for up to six months, semen samples are frozen and quarantined for that period to confirm its absence. Sperm donation is anonymous. Our patients can specify their desired donor physical characteristics, but they are advised that these should be similar to their own or those of their partner or other children. In addition, the couple’s blood group is taken into account to assign the most suitable donor.

How is sperm donation performed?

The samples are stored frozen. When required, the selected sample is removed from storage to thaw, which lasts a couple of hours, and then it is used in the fertilization process.

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